Ruins of Ancient Kurundumale (Kurundavashoka) Viharaya in Mullaitivu
The northern part of Sri Lanka was inaccessible to the Sri Lankans for over 30 years due to the LTTE terrorists controlling the most of this area. After the defeat of the LTTE in 2009, this area has seen a massive development in the infrastructure and facilities enabling any Sri Lankan to travel and visit any area.
Along with this freedom to access these forbidden jungles, ruins of hundreds of ancient Buddhist sites hidden in the jungles of Mullaitivu District, Vavuniya District, Mannar District and Kilinochchi District have been discovered by the Army. Due to 30+ years of ethnic cleansing of Tamil Tiger Terrorists supported by Tamil politicians, Buddhist villages which supported few monks in some of these temples also have disappeared.
Even after the end of the LTTE , Tamil Politicians are continuously creating obstructions using the innocent civilian villagers around national heritage sites to stop these being developed or conserved.
The ruins at the Kurundumale ( Tamil : Kurundumalei) in Mulathivu district is such a place currently being fought by the politicians stating that this is a site of a Hindu Kovil and not a Buddhist site. The ruins of Kurundumale has been documented in an archaeological report of 1905. An inscription which was recorded at this site has now disappeared. In August 2013, this site was declared as a protected archaeological site by a gazette notification.
To understand the importance of this site, we need to go back to the time of the arrival of the great Mahinda Thero to the country in 250 BC. The preaching of the Buddha were in the language of of Pali. The Atuwa (අටුවා) are the text written in Pali which describes the the deeper areas in Tripitaka in detail. When the Buddhism was brought to Sri Lanka, the local priests stared documenting the deeper analysis of Tripitaka in local language (Hela Basa) which were collectively called Helatuwa (හෙළටුවා). Helatuwa consist of three Attakatha (අට්ඨකථා). These are Maha Attakathawa (මහා අට්ඨකතාව), Pachchari Attakathawa (පච්චරි අට්ඨකතාව) and Kurundi Attakathawa (කුරුන්දි අට්ඨකථාව).
It is believed that the Kurundi Attakatha has been documented in the Kurundavashoka Viharaya (Kurundashoka Viharaya) in Kurundumale. According to Mahavamsa, the Kurundavashoka Monastery has been built by king Kallatanaga (109-104 BC) and records various donations by king Aggabodhi I (575-608) and king Vijayabahu I (1070-1110).
The first to report these ruins in some detail was Mr J. Penry Lewis, Government agent, Northern Province in his report of the Vanni in The Manual of Vanni District in 1895.
The most extensive ruins in the whole Province are those at Kuruntanurmalai, or Piyangala, at the south end of the embankment of the Kuruntankulam tank. Mr. Parker thinks that —
This is the spot that is said to have been visited by Buddha on his second journey to Ceylon. A flight of stone steps led from the end of the bund to the summit of the hill. The top of the hill is flat, and of elliptical or oval shape. Round the side facing the bund, and possibly round all the summit, a retaining wall of squared blocks of the hard altered gneiss has been built to a height of 7 ft. or 8 ft. at a batter 1/2 to 1.
There are several ruins on tho hill. and at the back of tho northern part of the bund ; but they are all dilapidated, more through wilful defacement by the later Tamil occupants than by the action of time. About half-way between the southern end of the bund and the southern most bund is the site of an ancient temple, with a stone five-headed cobra.
Behind the bund there are the ruins of at least three temples or buildings of importance, such as at Madukanda, Mahakachetkodi, Iratperiyakulam, &c., having three parallel rows of squared stone pillars ; in one case there had been at least three of these rows. At one place there were standing two doratupla stones covered with carved figures of guardian goddesses, exactly like those at Madulcanda, but they were more than half buried, and the space between them, where there is evidently a flight of steps, is completely buried, with a tree growing in the middle. (Stones were removed from Kuruntanurmalai (in 1858 I believe) to build the Mullivaykkal temple. The doorway of that temple is constructed of carved stones from that site.)
One of the two makara torana stones which form the bahistiacle of the steps as at Madukanda is lying on the surface turned over on its side, and the other is probably lying buried somewhere near. On digging here the top step was seen, and the whole are probably in- situ. There is also a large inscribed slab. In another place are a roughly-executed figure of a bull, the head broken off but forthcoming, and a figure representing a worshipper. These figures evidently belonging to the Hindu temple which was built after the Tamil invasion.
There is also a large heap of bricks, apparently the remains of a dagoba. and there are pillars on all sides.
The town or large village that was built on the low side of the embankments, and traces of which are to be seen in the fragments of pottery that line the beds of the smaller water-sources is termed Kurungama in the inscription. The Tamil name was Kuruntanur. The later Tamil residents built a temple here, and they demolished the vihare built by Sanghabodhi and other buildings, and removed nearly all the bricks and the stonework to it. It is not known when the tank was breached and the town was abandoned ; all that can be said is that there is nothing to indicate that the place has been inhabited since the thirteenth or fourteenth century.
Kuruntankulam.—Inscription by Mahindu III. (937-1013 a.d.), who visited the tank with his mother (?) and daughter in the eighth year of his reign. It is on a large slab, and is one of the largest inscriptions in the Island, but for the most part now illegible, containing —
Chiefly a series of rules like those on the Mihintale tablets, to be observed by the monks who were stationed here, but a few references of more general interest are included in it, and allusion is made to the king’s great lake (which would appear to be Tannirmurippu), and also to some disputes that were having an injurious effect on the cultivation. The king, who states that he himself was the writer of the inscription upon the stone, and who appears to have had some doubts regarding his orthographical powers, commands that those rules ” shall continue in force, and not be upset or reconstructed if letters are missing.
The town that existed on this site is termed Kurungama in the inscription.
This slab is now in three pieces. The letters on it are very fairly and evenly cut, each one separated by horizontal lines cut as straight as if they had been done with a ruler, and there is a raised border round the stone.Manual of the Vanni districts (Vavuniya and Mullaittivu), of the Northern Province, Ceylon (1895)
According to Lewis, this inscription was half buried however completely copied in November 1890.
According to Parker, this is one of the largest rock inscription. This inscription has been made during the reign of king Mahinda III (801-804) to resolve a dispute relating use of water in Kurangama Reservoir. The report also records that the stupa was protected by a Vatadage (Stupa House).
According to the archaeological report of of 1905, Kurundumale had the most extensive ruins in the Province. The description of the site from the 1905 report is as below;
A hill in the jungle about seven miles north-east of Otiya-malai. Tlie name means “hill of the Kuruntan tree ;” the kuruntan is called panguru-gaha in Sinhalese.
The cart track from Otiya-malai crosses the beds of several tanks and streams. It is not particularly good in dry weather, and must be impossible in wet.
Between Otiya-malai and Kumila-munai on the shore of the Nay-aru lagoon there is permanent water at one place “only within easy distance of the track. That is at Tannir-murippu , which simply means “water breach,” and is the spot where the main breach in the bund of the great nameless tank occurs. Here there is a large deep pool of rather evil-flavoured water.
At the foot of Kuruntan-malai, which is about a mile and a half north of the breach, there is a large shallow pond, beside which drinkable water can be got by digging.
Kuruntan-malai stands between the north end of the tank called Tannir-murippu and the south end of the bund of Kuruntan-kulam. Both these bunds lose themselves in the lower slopes of the hill. The hill is densely covered with jungle, in places thorny, so it is difficult to judge of its height. But I should guess it to be about 200 feet. It entirely differs from all other hills visited on this circuit, for there is not a single rock on it, and it rises equally steeply on all sides to where it is terraced, near the summit.
The summit is flat and measures 150 yards by 100 yards. It is rectangular in shape, and about three acres in area. It is raised about 10 feet above the terrace below, and was surrounded by a retaining wall, built in batter to prevent slips. This wall is traceable for the whole circuit, and in several places is in fairly good preservation. All this part is very densely overgrown, so that without doing a lot of clearing it is not possible to give very accurate measurements. However, those on which my plans and description are based are approximately correct. On the summit there are four buildings clearly defined and three more are indicated by heaps of debris.
Before giving an account of the buildings it is necessary to first describe the material of which they are built, for although in many respects the general plan of construction is according to the conventional Sinhalese style of architecture, yet the peculiarity of the material renders the appearance far from ordinary.
The pillars and steps are monolithic and gneiss, as at Anuradhapura and elsewhere ; but the walls of the buildings and of the terraces, the dagaba, and its several tiers are all built of small cut blocks of stone like large bricks, equally unlike the stone walls of the Anuradhapura builders and the later Polonnaruwa brickwork. The stone is a hard, brown, porous one, rather like solidified sponge. Mr. Parker, in his remarks on this hill, calls it “altered gneiss.” It is cut into blocks about 10 in. by 12 in. by 4 1/2 in., but not always of exactly the same size, and these are laid dry in no regular bond. None of the walls seem to have been coated with plaster.
The buildings are placed approximately one in each corner, as follows. The Dagaba in the north-east, the Vihare in the north-west, the Wata-da-ge in the south-east, and a large building of good finish in the south-west. This last is probably a Pilima-ge.
The Dagaba was a very small one on a lofty base built in four tiers, of which I think the upper two were circular. Owing to the” lack of tenacity of the stone blocks, and consequent decay of the building, it is not easy to make sure of this. On both the south and west of the lower tier steps led up in the wall to the higher level, as at Mirisavetiya Dagaba at Anuradhapura. One pillar stands before the western side of the Dagaba, and probably formed part of a chapel or altar-house.
The Dagaba retains enough of its shape, and at the same time is sufficiently breached, to show that it was built throughout of the stone blocks already described.
The Vihare is a thirty-six pillar building, 50 ft. by 40 ft. , which faces east. The walls and entrance are below ground. The pillars are well dressed, and measure 1 ft. square by about 10 ft. above ground. The Wata-da-ge is a circular building 35 feet in diameter. The outer wall is built about 2½ feet thick of stone blocks, and includes twelve pillars, all broken. Within this is another circular room surrounded by eight pillars, of which three are unbroken and stand about 5 feet above the debris. .All the pillars are square. The entrance is on the north and consists of four plain stone steps 3 ft. 8 in. wide. If these were guardstones and balustrades, they have been removed or destroyed.
The Pilima-ge is by far the most elaborate of the three pillared buildings, and is in the best preservation. It consists of a building on a platform. The platform measures about 85 ft. by 64 ft., and is held up by a retaining wall built of stone blocks to a height of 4 or 5 feet. The entrance to this is on the east. It has plain steps and plain volutes as balustrades ; the guardstones are missing. The building measures about 36 ft. by 30 ft., with an additional porch 15 feet square. The main building has thirty-six plain square pillars about 8 ft. by 1 ft. by 1 ft., and the porch has ten pillars, of which at least four, which are all broken, had capitals of different pattern from any I have seen before. The entrance is buried, but it is possible to see that the guardstones bore ” flower pot ” designs. The doorway between the porch and the main body of the building had a fine stone lintel about 6 feet long, the greater portion of which lies on the ground near by. It is ornamented along its whole length by a double row of carved ganas and makaras; the former are quite unlike the ordinary ganas of the Sinhalese carvings, and have what appears to be high brimless hats on their heads. There are twelve in one row and eight in the other. The walls of the building were built of stone blocks.
Besides the four buildings mentioned above, there are two mounds of stone blocks that seem from their positions to have been porches respectively of the Vihare and of the Wata-da-ge. Near to the south wall, and about equidistant from the Wata-da-ge and the Pilima-ge a few pillars show the site of another small building. There is nothing else above ground on the summit. Below the summit there is a terrace which was retained by a wall similar to that which surrounds the summit. On the north and on the east the terrace was 60 feet wide, but concerning the two remaining sides I am more doubtful, though clearing the undergrowth would settle the matter at once. In the plan I have drawn this terrace wall in dotted lines.
On the terrace there are sixteen collections each of twelve wedged stone pillars, These were doubtless the pansalas and the living part of the monastery. On the south and west sides of the hill I am inclined to think there was a lower terrace. I found traces of a wall more than 200 feet wide of the summit on the west, and on the south, besides more traces of walls at a similar distance, I found a long deep pokuna about 80 ft. by 60 ft. This pond is only a hollow now, but perhaps excavation would show it to have been stone-lined.
All that remain to be described on the hill are the two broad flights of steps which connect the monastery on the terraces with the ancient city below. An account of the eastern flight, which is the more perfect, will serve for both.
From the summit level to the terrace below there is a flight of eighteen steps, each formed of a gneiss slab 17 ft. long by 10½ in. by 6 in. This flight is not sunk through the retaining wall, but starting at its edge, projects for about 10 feet as a landing, and then descends to near the middle of the terrace. Then from the edge of the terrace a grand flight of 100 steps, each 17 ft. by 1 ft. 4½ in. by 6½ in., descends the hill unbroken into the forest below. This flight does not reach to the bottom of the hill, but of the flight which probably continued below it there is now no trace, save where a single stone here and there shows up half-buried. The northern steps are in worse preservation, but have one thing which is lacked by those on the west. At a point about 100 feet from the summit there are a pair of plain guardstones in situ, but buried to within 6 inches of their tops.
From the top of this hill the monks of old must have had a view calculated to gladden the heart of any ruler in Lanka who may have worshipped at the shrines there. Below the hill, on the south-west, stretched the thousands of acres of the tank called Tannir-murrippu. Far to the east lie the pale blue waters of the shallow Nay-aru lagoon, and beyond it the briglit line of the sea. While north , south , east, and west lay a fertile country of tanks and rice fields innumerable.
By climbing the dagaba, and thus rising above the jungle, one can gain a beautiful prospect even now. But in place of the great tank and the pleasant fields there is only forest, which reaches the horizon on all sides but the east, dark and unbroken.
Bounded on the west by Kuruntan-kulam, and on the south by the slopes of Kuruntan-malai, lies the buried town that goes by the name of Kuruntan-Ur. Many of the ruins lie within a quadrilateral space perhaps 200 acres in extent, which is surrounded on three sides by a bund that was topped by a wall of stone blocks, the fourth being the bund of the tank.
The whole area is dense jungle, and without excavation or prolonged exploration it is not possible to judge of the quality or extent of more than a few of the larger buildings. But pillar stumps are to be found at frequent intervals all over the walled space.
There does not seem to have been any one building much larger than the rest, but of small buildings
there were a great number. Items are —
☯ A small nearly levelled dagaba.
☯ A few stone pillars beside which lies the greatly damaged stone figure of a bull. This was probably a Sivite temple.
☯ A large yoni stone 3 ft. by 3 ft. 3 in. with a hole 1 ft. 1½ in. in diameter cut in it.
☯ A brick well 4 ft. 6 in. wide and 25 feet deep, 20 feet being dry laid brickwork, and the rest cut into soft rock.
☯ A sedent figure in an attitude of prayer cut in bas-relief on a slab of stone 2ft. 6in. by 1 ft. 9 in.
☯ Several pillar buildings with Naga-raja guardstones.
☯ A brick building, probably a Hindu kovil, which has collapsed and become a mound.
These show a thorough mixture of Buddhist and Hindu ruins.
The “Manual of the Vanni” mentions a large slab inscription here, but I was unable to find it. From the breach in the tank bund a stream has cut a channel through the town, and its bed is a mine of pottery. I have never at any place seen so many large fragments of pottery ; they stick out of the banks and bed of the stream everywhere. One very nearly complete pot I picked up was of very thick heavy make, and measured 8 inches across ; another fragment had a design of flowers stamped on it.
A mile to the north of the tank I found a ruined stone bridge of the usual “stone carpentry” type. On one of the pillars are cut two curious marks each 3 in. long, aid each like a flattened ” H” placed sideways. With regard to the probable history of the town and monastery of Kuruntan, Mr. Lewis in his “Manual of the Vanni” says —
” — There are several ruins on the hill, and at the back of the northern part of the bund ; but they are all dilapidated, more through willful defacement by the later Tamil occupants than by the action of time.
In another place are a roughly-executed figure of a bull, the head broken off but forthcoming, and a figure representing a worshipper. These figures evidently belonged to the Hindu temple which was built after the Tamil invasion.
The later Tamil residents built a temple here, and they demolished the vihare built by Sanghabodhi and other buildings and removed nearly all the bricks and stonework to it. — “
Without wishing to obtrude my opinion, I cannot altogether agree that the inference drawn from these extracts is borne out by observation of the ruins.
The ruins on the hill are undoubtedly Buddhistical , and they are in much better preservation than any of those on the flat. If a Tamil ruler had demolished the older Sinhalese buildings and built his gods temple out of the materials thus obtained, his temple would presumably exist in better preservation than its robbed predecessor. But this is not the case. I do not think the condition of the monastery on the hill is any worse than would result from ordinary decay, taking into consideration its situation and material.
Some few stones, probably carvings, may have well been removed, but the buildings have not to my mind suffered depredations equal to demolition, or to anything approaching it. Had a builder wished to tax the hill monastery for stone, he would have removed the easily obtainable and workable steps of the two great flights up the hill. But this does not seem to have been done.
Moreover, the ruins in the town beneath the tank do not show a larger proportion of remains undoubtedly Tamil than does the city of Polonnaruwa.
I cannot help thinking that the kovils in the town were built by some later Sinhalese King, who while upholding the ancient religion, like Solomon, tolerated the introduction of the new.H.C.P Bell, 1905. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURYEY OP CEYLON – NORTH-CENTRAL, CENTRAL, AND NORTHERN PROVINCES. ANNUAL REPORT, 1905. Colombo: H. M. RICHARDS.
After the 1905 report, the next report comes from Ven. Ellawala Medhananda Thero who had visited this site in 1964.
“No responsible person ever wanted to repair or reconstruct or consolidate the Buddhist shrines of Mulativu District when there was free access to the area. There is no other epoch that such a failure is felt than present times. A very holy place met with such a misfortune is Kurundavashoka Vihara eponymed Kurundammale at present. This is situated north of Tannimurippukulam tank close to Kumulamunai near Nedunkarni, in thick jungle. One has to follow hunter’s game tracks to reach the mountain. Kurundanmale was also named Piyankallu (sin: Piyangala)
The mountain spreads over an area of about 100 acres, The upper-most part is a Hat surface oval in shape. There were two paths to reach the top level from North and South, when I visited it in .1964.
The brick mound on top of the mountain, 140’ in the round and 21’ in height, was a stupa that outshone all other objects around. Some other foundations show characters of Image houses. A pit is dug at the entrance to one such building. That can be considered to be a Vatadage (circular relic mouse). The two wells or rather ponds that supplied water for the religious site are filled with mud. Signs of an outer wall can be seen. There were flights of steps to the structures where climbing was necessary. Ruins show that the religious place started some where in the Pre Common Era and existed for many centuries.
No other place I visited in this district had such an amount of ruins. Unfortunately no inscriptions are met with here. But a document that mentions about king Mahinda III (801 804) tells us about a dispute regarding water in a tank at Kurangama. C. W. Nicolas is of opinion that this dispute arose on the waters of Tannimurippukulam. We struggled hard to find out this inscription, but the efforts were in vain. There is a story among the settlers here mainly Tamils that Buddha in one of His visits trod on this rock. Considering all, it is worthwhile to be more inquisitive about the place.
A village named Kurundaka is mentioned in the commentaries. The ‘Kadaim poth’ (information On boundaries) mentions Kurundugamurata. The word ‘rata’ means a district or an area. ‘Padi rata’ is mentioned as closer to Kurundurata in Pujavali and Nikaya Sangraha. Kurundurata, Kurundugaamurata, Kurundaka can be the same area. Padirata is known today as Padaviya. Chronicles say about Parakramabahu 1 l (1236 -70) defeating the forces of Magha at Kurundi. Chandrabhanu who invaded Shri Lanka at a recent period, is said to have enticed the Sinhala people at the same place. Ivers is of opinion that Kurundurata is present Kanda Korale and Kadavat Korale. Some believe that it is Karikattumalei South that belongs to the Vavuniya District. Aggabodhi I (571-604) built a vihara named Kurunda. Vijayabahu I reconstructed it. Aggabodhi I also constructed the Kurunda Vapi (Kurundu Vava) and a coconut grove there. Khallata Naga (100-103) built the Kurundavashoka Viharaya. It was also known as Kurundapasaka.
Kurundavashoka is the shortened from of ‘Kurundavapi Ashoka’. The Ashoka vihara close to the Kurunda vapi was named thus. The term ‘Kurunda’ is present in all forms. The earlier said inscription tells of Kurungama. Kurundama also is similar. As some Commentaries are older than the chronicles, (esp. Sihalattha Katha) we can conclude that Kurundagama and its vihara existed from the time of Ven. Mahinda. One of the commentaries was written here. All these suggest that this sacred place was in existence from the Pre Common Periods and Buddhist Bhikkhus lived there from such a length of time. The Manorathapurani mentions of a bhikkhu in the full name of Kurundakavasi Pussamitta Thera.
At least two days are necessary to do a general inspection of ruins at Kurundankulama and Tannimurippu Kulam. The Tamil villager who showed us the way presented himself to carry me on his back as I was tired. Such was the friendship between the two races then. Terrorism has over-ruled all other sentiments today and we find that we cannot step into those places. The villagers today face many hardships. Such Places where Buddhist heritage flourished are today in pathetic conditions.”The Sinhala Buddhist heritage in the East and the North of Shri [i.e. Sri] Lanka.
The jungles which the Kurundumale Monastery existed was declared as an protected archaeological area by the gazette number 7981 published on May 12th 1933. Again on 16th August 2013, this are area was declared as an protected archaeological site. But in 2018 when the department of archaeology started conservation of the location, the politicians of the TNA agitated the Tamil people of around the area and threatened the officers of the department and two Buddhist priests who had visited the site to see the ruins. They managed to stop the conservation work and obtained a temporary restraining order from the courts by citing that this conversation efforts may cause civil unrest in the area. The joke was that it was these TNA MPs who were creating the civil unrest.
Fortunately in October 2018, the judge in the Mullativu courts gave permission for the Archeology Department to proceed with the conservation work.
To reach this historic site from Vavuniya town, the old route was on the A9 you will reach the Puliyankulama where the road will divert to Nedunkeni. Then take the Nedunkeni road travel past Nedunkeni and towards Mullativu for 6 km to reach an unmarked gravel road to the right leading towards the jungles. Travel on this road for 10 km through the Thannimuruppu Reservation to reach the access area to these ruins. Then you need to trek through the jungle to reach the discovered area of ruins.
However, with the renewed interest in the site and further excavations been carried out, a new route to the site has been developed from the Mullaitivu – Kokilai road which will bring you to the same access area described above (as of 2022). From Mullaitivu, travel 11.0 km on the Kokilai Road to reach the Alampil Junction. From this junction turn right. A large board placed by the Department of Archaeology indicating the access road to Kurundumale Archaeological Ruins can be seen directing you to the turn off. 12 km on this road will bring you to the same access area. This road well built and carpeted for about 3 kilometers. From there onward have to take a gravel road though paddy fields and along an irrigation canal. There are 2 smaller sign boards at the later stage giving directions. The gravel road can be managed by a car but at a couple of places you have to be careful. vehicles with better ground clearance are most suitable.
Other advantage is almost all the army camps and villagers are aware of this site on this route and the chances of getting lost is almost none.
The top of the hill covering about 20 acres is filled with ruins of ancient buildings. There has been a kabook wall encircling the top of the hill and remains of this wall are still seen at some places.
Ruins of one ancient stupa can be seen on the southern side of the ruins. All you will see today is a large mound of earth with a diameter of about 120 feet rising to about 20 feet overgrown with trees. Treasure hunters has taken their own time digging this stupa in search of treasures. Ruins of various buildings can be seen scattered around this area. Rock pillars, broken moonstones, balustrades and steps are scattered on the rock as well as at the lower levels.
Around 2020 efforts to find the remains of this ancient monastic complex were accelerated by some of the priests and civil supporters with constant disruptions of Tamil Politicians now claiming this land to be a Hindu Kovil.
The excavation teams had discovered the remains of the Stupa and part of the large inscription buried under sand. This is the second piece of the inscription which was discovered and the third is yet to be found.
During the excavation of the stupa built with Kabook blocks an exquisitely carved octagonal “Yupa Gala“, the central pillar of the Stupa’s of the early era. Tamil politicians jumped on to this discovery s well stating that a Siva Linga had been found at the Kurundumale site despite similarly designed Yupa Gal found all over the country.
The excavations of site still continues and hopefully more of this site will be conserved without political interference.
- Lewis, P., 1895. Manual of the Vanni districts (Vavuniya and Mullaittivu), of the Northern Province, Ceylon. 1st ed. Colombo: H.C. Cottle, Acting Govt. Printer.
- H.C.P Bell, 1905. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURYEY OP CEYLON – NORTH-CENTRAL, CENTRAL, AND NORTHERN PROVINCES. ANNUAL REPORT, 1905. Colombo: H. M. RICHARDS.
- Ellāvala Medhānanda, 2005. The Sinhala Buddhist heritage in the East and the North of Shri [i.e. Sri] Lanka. 1st ed. Colombo: Dayawansa Jayakody & Co.
- එල්ලාවල මේධානන්ද හිමි, 2013. ප්රාචීන පස්ස උත්තර පස්ස නැගෙනහිර පළාත හා උතුරු පළාතේ සිංහල බෞද්ධ උරුමය. 5th ed. කොළඹ: දයාවංශ ජයකොඩි සහ සමාගම.
- අග්බෝ රජු තැනූ මුලතිව් කුරුඳුමලේ විහාරය පිළිසකර කිරීමට TNA එරෙහි වෙයි…
- පුරාවිද්යා සංහාරකයන්ට කනේ පාරක්… මුලතිව් කුරුන්දාශෝක විහාරය සංරක්ෂණය කිරීමට උසාවි තීන්දුවක්
Map of Ruins of Ancient KurundumaleViharaya
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Traveling Directions to Ruins of Ancient Kurundumale Viharaya
Route from Vavuniya to Ruins of Ancient Kurundumale Viharaya
|Through : Omanthe – Puliyankulam – Nedunkeni|
Time to spend – 2-4 hours
Distance : 56 km
Travel time : 1.5 hours + hike
Driving directions : see on google map