Ambuluwawa Biodiversity Complex (අම්බුළුවාව ජෛව විවිධත්ව සංකීණය)

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The Supa and the Observation Tower
The Supa and the Observation Tower

Some millions of years ago Sri Lanka was a part of the Indian peninsula and was connected to Godwanaland. Later it was pushed away towards north as an island. According to the Rama-Ravana legend Talaimannar strait is the location where Hanuma built his bridge to connect Sri Lanka with South India. This was the place which connected Sri Lanka with India from time to time. Sri Lanka lost this geographical connection some thousands of years ago but it has resulted in creating a rich biodiversity here comprising a large population of fauna and flora.

Sri Lanka is considered to be the country in Asia which has the richest biodiversity in a single area. Biodiversity in this country spreads through a wider range of area as a result of its inter relationship with Indian peninsula. Significance of living beings, variety of forests and the natural freshness of the soil have created the bio land environment inherited to Sri Lanka and the mid country hills occupy a significant place in the connation of biodiversity. There are planes in the South-west area.

There are rivers in the mid hill country, which receive their flowing water from the South-west monsoon rains and connection rains. The area is thickly vegetated too. Large streams and almost all the main rivers starting from mid hill country can be seen in the South Western side of the hill country. Water basis as well as the fertile soil, comfortable breeze that blows through the warm rays of the sun – all these are the results of the biodiversity in the mid country .


Ambuluwawa peak situated in the center of Gampola Kingdom established by the great Sinhalese King Buvanekabahu IV. (1341-1357 AD) was hitherto not put into any use. Height of the peak from the mean sea level is 1,112 meters (3650 feet) and from the Gampola town is 590 meters (1965 feet). Mayura Sandesaya, the messenger poem written in the 14th Century describes this enchanting rock and the surroundings thus:

When the planets and stars disappear from the sky and when the nectar appears in or drops from flowers on tree tops and when the sun spreads its rays as it rises over the mountain of the east, you may set off from Ambuluwakanda happily.

Mayura Sandesa (versa 25)

Ambuluwawa – Biodiversity

Biodiversity at Ambuluwawa has a more complexed expansion than that of the common examples of biodiversity. Ambuluwawa is a rock mountain but it is different from rock mountains commonly seen in Sri Lanka . It is made of special type of rock known as “Inselberg” and is least subject to erosion caused by natural forces.

Experiments on the diversity of vegetation at Ambuluwawa are still in progress. According to the research work so far done, there are about 200 varieties of plants belonging to 80 plant families. The soil here is red or brown and belongs to the latezoic type. Medicinal plants known as ‘iramusu ‘, ‘ muva kiriya ‘ and ‘ nawa handi ‘ are the common plants grown in the area.

Surrounding the mountain there are uniformly spread ever green forests, groves of blossomed flower plants and creepers which make the breeze around the mountain cool. Panoramic view of the mountain ranges is enticing and impressive. Clearly visible mountains such as Pidurutalagala in the east, Bathalegala or Bible Rock in the west, Sri Pada or Adams Peak in the south and Knuckles range in the north enrich the scenic beauty of the place. Apart from these, mountain ranges associated with Alagalla and Kadugannawa, mountains like Hanthana and Hunnasgiri and mountains in Nuwara Eliya district are also clearly visible and they add beauty to the surroundings.

There is no other summit than Ambuluwawa which is surrounded by a large number of mountain ranges of scenic beauty in Sri Lanka . The precious water of the Mahaweli the life blood of up country people and the long tracts of paddy fields fed by Mahaweli water make the

Ambuluwawa rock more attractive. Thousands of rival, houses and the crowded streets of Gampola town can be seen at a single place – Ambuluwawa and the view is unique and impressive.

New Vision

Modern development of Ambuluwawa has converted it to a reserve for folk museum based on a clear cut vision. Three tanks built on the Summit provide water down to the bottom of the mountain. Stones being an essential element of the environment the Stone Park which displays a collection of stones is a new experience. Local and foreign scholars who wish to conduct research can have necessary facilities here in a calm and quiet atmosphere. The Bo sapling obtained from the Sri Maha Bodhi grows upon the summit offering a sense of tranquility to everybody.

Beautiful entrance, twin ponds, water parks and stone parks are unique features of the Ambuluwawa summit. Herb gardens and nature bring immense relaxation both to mind and body. Spine plantations and orchards are fine examples which tell us that local agro economy should be developed. International Conference Hall is equipped with all the necessary facilities for conferences. Area above the tank is a forest haunted by deers and sambas making the environment lively. Roads with sleeps and precipices give you frightening experience. The sub-way below the summit gives you excitement. A restaurant is run in an enchanting location. “Govi Sevana” has been established for the farmers to congregate. An image house of the latest style is being constructed to place the Buddha statue made of stone. The observation room on the top of the mountain provides facilities to admire the the superb panorama. An inscription has been installed explaining the objective of the biodiversity complex.

Also See

Map of Ambuluwawa Biodiversity Complex – Gampola

ගූගල් සිතියම් පහලින් – Please click on the button below to load the Dynamic Google Map –

The map above also shows other places of interest within a approximately 20 km radius of the current site. Click on any of the markers and the info box to take you to information of these sites

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Driving Directions to Ambuluwawa

Route from Colombo to Ambuluwawa, Gampola Route from Kandy to Ambuluwawa, Gampola
Though : Peradeniya
distance : 135 km
Travel time : 4-4.5 hours
Driving directions : see on google map
Notes : Carpeted roads all the way up to Gampola. Recommended Route
Though : Kegalle ( Kegalla)
distance : 120 km
Travel time : 4-4.5 hours
Driving directions : see on google map


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